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Economic Impact of Human Papilloma Virus in Swaziland a Major Concern – UKZN Study Reveals

2017/06/19 09:37:17 AM

Ginindza conducted the study - titled: “Cost Analysis of Human Papilloma Virus-Related Cervical Diseases and Genital Warts in Swaziland” - in collaboration with Professor Benn Sartorius, Ms Xolisile Dlamini and Ms Ellinor Östensson.

 
 Dr Themba Ginindza.
The economic burden of human papilloma virus-related cervical diseases and genital warts is a major concern in Swaziland, a study conducted by UKZN Public Health Medicine lecturer Dr Themba Ginindza has revealed.

Ginindza conducted the study - titled: “Cost Analysis of Human Papilloma Virus-Related Cervical Diseases and Genital Warts in Swaziland” - in collaboration with Professor Benn Sartorius, Ms Xolisile Dlamini and Ms Ellinor Östensson.

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection and specifically oncogenic HPV types 16 and 18 are highly associated with cervical abnormalities and invasive cervical cancer and other diseases of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, oropharynx and penis, all of which impact on people´s health and resource consumption in society.

According to the published literature, the cost for screening, management and treating patients with HPV-related diseases is related to the high healthcare costs and is suggested to be greater than the combined cost for the prevention and treatment of most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases (STIs).

‘Several studies have assessed the costs of cervical lesions, cervical cancer, and genital warts,’ said Ginindza. ‘However, few have been done in Africa and none in Swaziland.

‘Cost analysis is critical in providing useful information for economic evaluations to guide policymakers concerned with the allocation of resources in order to reduce the disease burden.’

The researchers used a prevalence-based cost of illness (COI) methodology to investigate the economic burden of HPV-related diseases.

‘We used a top-down approach for the cost associated with hospital care and a bottom-up approach to estimate the cost associated with outpatient and primary care,’ Ginindza explained.

He said the study was conducted from a provider perspective since the state bore the majority of the costs of screening and treatment in Swaziland. ‘All identifiable direct medical costs were considered for cervical lesions, cervical cancer and genital warts, which were primary diagnoses during 2015,’ he said.

A mix of a bottom up micro-costing ingredients approach and top-down approaches were used to collect data on costs. All costs were computed at the price level of 2015 and converted to US dollars.

The results revealed the total annual estimated direct medical cost associated with screening, managing and treating cervical lesions, cervical cancer and genital warts in Swaziland was US$16 million.

‘The largest cost in the analysis was for treatment of high-grade cervical lesions and cervical cancer representing 80% of the total cost of $12.6 million. Costs for screening represented only 5% of the total cost at $0.9 million. Treatment of genital warts represented 6% of a total cost at $1million.

Ginindza said the prevention of HPV infection with a national HPV immunisation programme for pre-adolescent girls would prevent the majority of cervical cancer-related deaths and associated costs.

Nombuso Dlamini

Nombuso Dlamini

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